Paediatric Sleep Apnea due to Adenoids
Paediatric sleep apnea is commonly due to adenoid and tonsillar enlargement and causes chronic running nose, mouth breathing, frequent infections especially of the lungs, poor appetite, nasal congestion, and ADHD like symptoms mainly poor concentration, and hyperactivity.
Since OSA results from relative narrowing of upper airway rather than the absolute size of the adenoids, tonsillar size Adenoidectomy is an effective first-line treatment for pediatric OSA which also corrects failure to thrive and shown to increase the height and weight of children
MISDIAGNOSING SLEEP APNEA AS ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, also known as ADHD, is a common condition diagnosed due to symptoms indicating hyperactivity, inattentiveness, and impulsivity. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is among the neurobehavioral sequelae associated with OSA in nearly 75 percent of children.
OSAS in children is a similar condition to the form in adults in children.
· If left untreated, OSAS is associated with adverse effects on growth and development, and can cause metabolic, cardiovascular and neurocognitive disease and behavioural changes in children.
· Daytime hyperactivity.
· Cognitive deficits.
· Cardiovascular problems – eg, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, raised pulmonary artery pressure.
· Failure to thrive.
· Association with insulin resistance.
· Some studies have shown that children with OSAS have greater impulsivity when crossing streets which increases their risk of injury.
· School-aged children are at risk of developing future obesity if they have OSAS.